Last Updated on : November 23, 2014

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The Analogy of
The Grecian Games In The Word
By J.B. Scaramastro



OUTLINE | 1-10| 11-20 | 21-30 | 31-40 | 41-50 | 51-60 | 61-70 | 71-82 |

Appendix A | Appendix B | Appendix C  |


[This book, for the most part, is completed -- but it still needs some minor work -- page numbers, appendix, etc.]

bro Julio Scaramastro died before making the revisions he intended--ed

Page 1

Throughout the Scriptures the Deity as a master artist with words instead of paints and brush, paints beautiful pictures. In order to truly appreciate the beauty of His work, we must study all the details and intricacies of each of the pictures that He has painted for us and our education, enlightenment, and edification. In the discussion about to follow only one of these pictures is considered in all its many aspects, and that is the picture in words of the Grecian games.

In our consideration of this picture or analogy it must be remembered that by the use of the natural the Deity is not instructing us to actually become involved in sports or the Olympic games. His purpose is to convey to us in an easily remembered as well as interesting and impressive fashion certain spiritual truths that will aid us in our service to Him. An analogy never teaches itself but always something else. It is by definition, "a comparison of two things, alike in certain respects; particularly a method of exposition by which one unfamiliar object or idea is explained by comparing it in certain of it similarities with other objects or ideas more familiar" Thrall, Hibbard, Holman. A Handbook to Literature, page 17. Thus our consideration of this subject will consist of exposition, exhortation, encouragement, edification, admonition and warning. Hopefully, we will be stimulated to look at others of these beautiful pictures painted by the Deity and derive the benefit for which they are there. Also, it is hoped that the particular Bible image under consideration as well as the other beautiful imagery employed by the Deity will motivate us to be more dedicated servants of the Deity and His son the Lord Jesus Christ.

Before we get started, it is important to realize that with the Deity every word counts. He is not wasteful or redundant or inaccurate in His use of words. If a word is there, then there is a reason why it was used and some other word was not, as well as why it appears in that particular grammatical form. Thus, we will look at the various words and sometimes their grammatical forms that are used in the analogy under consideration.

By way of background, it is interesting to note that the Grecian games had become popular far from the boundaries of their origin in Greece. We find mention of them, for example, in both the first and second book of Maccabees. Here, we find expressed the attitude of true Israelites towards these games. In 1 Maccabees 1:10-14 (from The New American Bible), we have the following:

"There sprang from these a sinful offshoot, Antiochus Epiphanes, son of King Antiochus, once a hostage at Rome. He became king in the year one hundred and thirty-seven of the kingdom of the Greeks.

"In those days there appeared in Israel men who were breakers of the law, and they seduced many people, saying: "Let us go and make an alliance with the Gentiles all around us; since we separated from them, many evils have come upon us." The proposal was agreeable; some from among the people promptly went to the king, and he authorized them to introduce the way of living of the Gentiles. Thereupon they built a gymnasium in Jerusalem according to the Gentile custom. They covered over the mark of their circumcision and abandoned the holy covenant; they allied themselves with the Gentiles and sold themselves to wrongdoing."

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In 2 Maccabees 4:7-17 (from The New American Bible), we have the following:

"... But Seleucus died, and when Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes succeeded him on the throne, Onias' brother Jason obtained the high priesthood by corrupt means; in interview, he promised the king three hundred and sixty talents of silver, as well as eighty talents from another source of income. Besides this he agreed to pay a hundred and fifty more, if he were given authority to establish a gymnasium and a youth club for it and to enroll men in Jerusalem as Antiochians.

"When Jason received the kings' approval and come into office, he immediately initiated his countrymen into the Greek way of life. He set aside the royal concessions granted to the Jews through the mediation of John, father of Eupolemus (that Eupolemus who would later go on an embassy to the Romans to establish a treaty of friendship with them); he abrogated the lawful institutions and introduced customs contrary to the law. He quickly established a gymnasium at the very foot of the acropolis, where he induced the noblest young men to wear a Greek hat. The craze for Hellenism and foreign customs reached such a pitch, through the outrageous wickedness of the ungodly pseudo-high priest Jason, that the priests no longer cared about the service of the altar. Disdaining the temple and neglecting the sacrifices, they hastened, at the signal for the discus-throwing, to take part in the unlawful exercises on the athletic field. They despised what their ancestors had regarded as honors, while they highly prized what the Greeks esteemed as glory. Precisely because of this, they found themselves in serious trouble: the very people whose manner of life they emulated, and whom they desired to imitate in everything, became their enemies and oppressors. It is no light matter to flout the laws of God, as the following period will show."

By way of explanation, the following footnote was included in order to explain the location of the gymnasium and significance of the Greek hat referred to in the above quotation:

"Since the gymnasium, where the youth exercised naked (Greek GYMNOS), lay in the Tyropoeon Valley to the east of the citadel, it was directly next to the temple on its eastern side. The Greek hat: a wide-brimmed hat, traditional headgear of Hermes, the patron god of athletic contests; it formed part of the distinctive costume of the members of the 'youth club.'"

The definition of "youth club" that was provided sounds alot like our present school system and therefore provides a warning unto all about the importance of separation and spiritual education. It was defined as, "an educational institution in which young men were trained both in Greek intellectual culture and in physical fitness."

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Josephus in his Antiquities Of The Jews in book 15, chapter 8 and section one says the following:

"On this account it was that Herod revolted from the laws of his country, and corrupted their ancient constitution, by the introduction of foreign practices, which constitution yet ought to have been preserved inviolable; by which means we became guilty of great wickedness afterward while those religious observances which used to lead the multitude to piety, were now neglected; for, in the first place, he appointed solemn games to be celebrated every fifth year, in honor of Caesar, and built a theater at Jerusalem, as also a very great amphitheater in the plain. Both of them were indeed costly works, but opposite to the Jewish customs; for we have had no such shows delivered down to us as fit to be used or exhibited by us, yet did he celebrate these games every five years, in the most solemn and splendid manner ... but to natural Jews, this was no better than a dissolution of these customs for which they had so great a veneration."

At this point, a footnote is introduced by the translator of The Works of Flavius Josephus, namely, William Whiston which is well worth considering in light of our own involvement with sports. He says, "These grand plays, and shows, and Thymelici, or music-meetings, and chariot-races,...etc., instituted by Herod in his theaters, were still, as we see here, looked on by the sober Jews as heathenish sports, and tending not only to corrupt the manners of the Jewish nation, and to bring them in love with paganish idolatry and paganish conduct of life, but to the dissolution of the law of Moses, and accordingly were greatly and justly condemned by them, as appears here and everywhere else in Josephus. Nor is the case of our modern masquerades, plays, operas, and the like 'pomps and vanities of this wicked world,' of any better tendency under Christianity."

Thus from these quotations we gain an insight into the extent of the familiarity of these games by all the people both Jews and Gentile alike, and more importantly the attitude of the true Israelite to these sports. It is also forcefully brought home that the Deity's use of this analogy does not mean He advocates becoming a natural athlete. In fact, it would be logical to assume that His attitude towards these sports would be that which was manifested by the Jews as represented in the above quotations. As a result of this conclusion, we should reconsider our stand towards our involvement in sports as Christadelphians or the true Israel of the Deity in this day and age.

The Grecian games were a means of fellowship to the Greeks. It was a time when war ceased and peace prevailed upon a religious based sports event. Likewise, the race for aionian life is the means for our fellowshipping one another in peace and unity striving for the prize. Thus as we come to consider these things together as spiritual athletes striving for the prize we must always remember the importance of this fellowshipping of one another around the Word of Yahweh and the strength and joy received thereby. (See Matt.18:20; Acts 2:42-47; Rom.1;11-12; 15:5-7; 1 Cor.1:9-10; 2 Cor.6:14-18; Eph.5:11; Phil.2:3; 2 Thess.1:3; Heb.10:24-25.)

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For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them. (Matt. 18:20, KJV).

42 And they continued steadfastly in the apostles' doctrine and fellowship, and in breaking of bread, and in prayers.
43 And fear came upon every soul: and many wonders and signs were done by the apostles.
44 And all that believed were together, and had all things common;
45 And sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men, as every man had need.
46 And they, continuing daily with one accord in the temple, and breaking bread from house to house, did eat their meat with gladness and singleness of heart,
47 Praising God, and having favour with all the people. And the Lord added to the ecclesia daily such as should be saved. (Acts 2:42-47, KJV).

11 For I long to see you, that I may impart unto you some spiritual gift, to the end ye may be established;
12 That is, that I may be comforted together with you by the mutual faith both of you and me.
(Rom. 1:11-12, KJV).

5 Now the God of patience and consolation grant you to be likeminded one toward another according to Christ Jesus:
6 That ye may with one mind and one mouth glorify God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ.
7 Wherefore receive ye one another, as Christ also received us to the glory of God. (Rom. 15:5-7, KJV).

9 God is faithful, by whom ye were called unto the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord.
10 Now I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all speak the same thing, and that there be no divisions among you; but that ye be perfectly joined together in the same mind and in the same judgment. (1 Cor. 1:9-10, KJV).

14 Be ye not unequally yoked together with unbelievers: for what fellowship hath righteousness with unrighteousness? and what communion hath light with darkness?
15 And what concord hath Christ with Belial? or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel?
16 And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? for ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, I will dwell in them, and walk in them; and I will be their God, and they shall be my people.
17 Wherefore come out from among them, and be ye separate, saith the Yahweh, and touch not the unclean thing; and I will receive you,
18 And will be a Father unto you, and ye shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty. (2 Cor. 6:14-18, KJV).

Page 5

11 And have no fellowship with the unfruitful works of darkness, but rather reprove them. (Eph. 5:11, KJV).

2 And to our beloved Apphia, and Archippus our fellowsoldier, and to the ecclesia in thy house: (Phil. 2:3, KJV).

3 We are bound to thank God always for you, brethren, as it is meet, because that your faith groweth exceedingly, and the agape-love of every one of you all toward each other aboundeth; (2 Thess. 1:3, KJV).

24 And let us consider one another to provoke unto love and to good works:
25 Not forsaking the assembling of ourselves together, as the manner of some is; but exhorting one another: and so much the more, as ye see the day approaching. (Heb. 10:24-25, KJV).

We will open our discussion of this analogy by a considering of the apostle Paul's use of it in his epistle to the Hebrew brethren. In Heb.12:1, he says, "Wherefore seeing we also are compassed about with so great a cloud of witnesses, let us lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us, and let us run with patience the race that is set before us, ... if here the Greek word translated "Wherefore" is TOIGAROUN, meaning by certain consequence, consequently." Bullinger page 872. "... is an earnest and solemn inference, only found at the beginning of a sentence..." The Greek Testament. Alford Vol.4, Page 234. In other words, the apostle Paul is telling us to now look at the logical consequence which grows out of the thoughtful and meditative listing of the faithful witnesses of bygone years.

Notice that in Heb.11:2 it is said of those about to be discussed that "by faith they obtained a good report" and at the end of the list in verse 39, it is said of them that they "through faith" had "obtained a good report." The word for "obtained a good report" is
MARTREO which means, "to witness, be a witness; testify. Here, passive or middle voice, to be well testified of, have good witness borne in favor of." Bullinger. Page 639. (Our word also occurs in verse 4, "obtained witness" and verse 5, "had this testimony" in reference to Abel and Enoch, respectively, but verses 2 and 39 sum it up in regards to all referred therein.). Notice also that in Heb.12:1 the cognate noun form is used, namely MARTUS, translated "witnesses." Thus we indeed have a logical connection between chapters eleven and twelve as guaranteed by our Greek word for "wherefore."

KAI, and, also, even. KAI, a conjunction of annexation differing from TE by uniting things strictly co-ordinate, while TE annexes something which does not directly or necessarily follow. [KAI, as meaning also, always immediately precedes the word which is emphatic ... ]." The word which it immediately precedes, and which is part of the logical outgrowth of chapter eleven as indicated by "wherefore," is the Greek word for "we." Thus the message is emphatically for us not the individuals enumerated in chapter eleven who now were asleep in Christ. What is the logical consequential message from chapter eleven which is being brought to bear on us? Well that is answered in the words that follow which Paul is basing on the image of the ancient Olympic games. Now let us begin to consider this message.

"are compassed about with," PERIKEIMAI, to lie around, also, to be laid around, to have round one." Bullinger. Page 174. "seeing," "EXO, to have, to hold, that is, to have and hold, implying present, continued having, or lasting possession." Bullinger. Page 354. (Upon relating all the English words back to the Greek, it would appear either "seeing" has no corresponding word in the Greek and that EXO had no corresponding word in the English, or that EXO was wrongly translated "seeing." Whatever the answer, "seeing" definitely is not appropriate to the translation.) Marshall translates the above as, "having lying around."

Page 6

"a cloud," NEPHOS, an indefinite cloudy mass that covers the heavens..." Bullinger. Page 157. This word only occurs in this passage in the New Testament. The other word for "clouds" which occurs frequently in the New Testament is "NEPHELE, a particular distinct cloud ... " Bullinger. Page 157. From Grimm-Thayer's Lexicon on page 424 we obtain the following:

"[synonyms NEPHOS, NEPHELE: NEPHOS is general, NEPHELE specific; the former denotes the great, shapeless collection of vapor obscuring the heavens; the latter designates particular and definite masses of the same, suggesting form and limit ...]. "NEPHOS ... II. Metaphorically, also, a cloud of men, etc., ... " Liddell and Scott. Page 1171. "The word 'cloud' here is not NEPHELE which is a detached and sharply outlined cloud, but NEPHOS, a great mass of cloud covering the entire visible space of the heavens, and therefore without definite form, or a single large mass in which outlines are not emphasized or distinguished. The use of 'cloud' for a mass of living beings is familiar in poetry. Homer speaks of 'a cloud of footmen, a cloud of Trojans.' Themistocles, addressing the Athenians, says of the host of Xerxes, 'we have had the fortune to save both ourselves and Greece by repelling so great a cloud of men.'" Wuest. Word Studies in the Greek New Testament. Vol. II. Page 212.

NEPHELE occurs only in the following New Testament passages:

Matt.17:5. "cloud ... cloud." On mount of transfiguration. Cloud of Divine origin.

Matt.24:30. "clouds." The glorified saint who along with the Lord Jesus Christ gather Israel after-the-flesh back to the land, as prophesied in Deut.30:1-5. Uses title of the Son of Man which is his title as the judge.

Matt.26:64. "clouds." Caiaphas would be a witness of the glorified Jesus as the Son of Man and his glorified saints.

Mark 9:7. "cloud ... cloud." On mount of transfiguration.

Mark 13:26. "clouds" The Son of Man and his glorified host proceeding to gather natural Israel.

Mark 14:62. "clouds." The Son of Man and his glorified followers would be witnessed by Caiaphas.

Luke 9:34. "cloud ... cloud." On mount of transfiguration.

Luke 12:54. "cloud." An actual cloud which produces rain. This is the only literal use of the word in the New Testament.

Page 7

Luke 21:27. "cloud." The Son of Man and his immortalized followers going forth to gather natural Israel.

Acts 1:9. "cloud." The cloud that received Jesus upon his ascension.

1 Cor.10:1. "cloud." The cloud which guided Israel from Egypt to the Promised Land.

1 Cor.10:2. "cloud." The cloud which lead Israel from Egypt to Canaan.

1 Thess.4:17. "clouds." The glorified saints.

2 Pet.2:17. "clouds." A metaphorical symbol in regards to the heretics Peter is talking about.

Jude 12. "clouds." A metaphorical symbol in regards to the heretics Jude is talking about.

Rev.1:7. "clouds." The immortalized host.

Rev.10:1. "cloud." The immortalized host about land in judgment upon the nations.

Rev.11:12. "cloud." Louis XVI invited the common people into the Parliament in 1789. This led to the French Revolution and the Wars of Napoleon from 1789-1819 which officially put to an end the Catholic Triumph which lasted from 1685-1790 or 105 years or 3-1/2 Lunar days of 30 normal days each: 30 + 30 + 30 + 15.

Rev.14:14. "cloud .... cloud." The immortalized host associated with the Son of Man in judgment upon the nations.

Rev.14:15. "cloud." The immortalized host.

Rev.14:16. "cloud." The immortalized host.

NEPHELE occurs in the following places in the Septuagint:

1. Rainbow in cloud: Gen.9:13,14,16.

2. Pillar of cloud: Ex.13:21,22; 14:19,24; 16:10; 24:15,16,18; 33:9,10; 34:5; 40:34-38; Lev.16:2; Num.9:15-22; 10:11,12,34; Num.11:25; 12:5,10; 14:14; 16:42; Deut.1:33; 31:15; 1 Kings 8:10,11; 2 Chron.5:13,14; Neh.9:12,19; Job 22:14; Ps-78:14; 99:7; 105:39; Isaiah 4:5*; Ezek.10:3,4.


*NOTE: In connection with point 2 above, and in connection with the principle stated in Rom.15:4 and 1 Cor.10:1-12, it is quite clear that the principles of God Manifestation are the basis of the historical narratives and prophetical statements surrounding NEPHELE. We see the outworkings of these in Zech.9:9-17. NEPHOS occurs in the following passages in the Septuagint: Job 7:9; 20:6; 22:14 (some manuscripts neghele. See (1.) below.); 26:8 (Second entry.); 26:9; 30:15; Job 35:5 (Some manuscripts NEPHELE. See (2.) below.); 36:28; 37:11,15,21; 38:9,34,37; Ps.104:3 (some manuscripts NEPHELE. See (3.) below); Prov-3:20; 8:28; 16:15; 25:14; Ecc.11:3; 12:2; Is.14:14 (some manuscripts NEPHELE. See (4.) below.). In the Septuagint that I possess (1.) is NEPHELE and (2.), (3.), and (4.) are NEPHOS.


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3. Literal clouds but by Divine Provision: 1 Kgs.18:44,45; Job 26:8 (first entry); 35:5; 36:29; 37:11; Psalms 36:5 (According to Dr. Thomas in the red set of Eureka volume one page 119, and page 142 with the original set, this is not literal clouds that are being talked about.); Jer.10:13.

4. Literal clouds and/or Symbolical clouds: Judges 5:4; 2 Sam.22:12; Ps.18:11,12: 57:10; 68:34; 77:17; 78:23; 97:2; 104:3; 108:4; 147:8; Ecc.11:4; Is.5:6; 14:14; 18:4; 19:1; Is.44:22; 45:8 ("skies" of KJV.= "clouds" of Septuagint); 60:8; Jer.4:13; Lam..3:44; Ezek.1:4,28; 30:3,18; 32:7; 34:12; 38:9,161; Dan.7:13; Hosea 6:4; 13:3; Joel 2:2; Nahum 1:3; Zeph.1:15.


NOTE: See pages 116-122 of Eureka volume one of red set. See pages 18-22 of Eureka volume two A of red set. See page 81 of Eureka volume two B of red set. See pages 50-53 of Come And See Things Which Shall be Hereafter by John Knowles. (1.) Notice that the idea of clouds in the political heavens is used by the Deity in regards to others besides that of the saints: See Is.14:14; Jer.4:13 and Ezek-38:9,16. (2.) Notice the NEPHOS of saints now, Heb.12:1, becomes the NEPHELE of the future glorified saints. NEPHOS: the exact number of saints is not made up yet, therefore, the cloud is not distinct, but it is an indefinite mass. Eventually, the exact number represented by the symbolical 144,000 is made up and the NEPHOS of Heb.12:1 becomes the NEPHELE of the kingdom age. (3.) Notice that as a result of the above conclusions the "clouds" of 1 Thess.4:17 can refer only to the glorified saints of the future political heavens.


(4.) Notice that as a conclusion from the above the cloud of Heb.12:1 must refer to the saints who are listed in Hebrews chapter eleven and who are now asleep in Christ. The fact that Paul indicates this "cloud" is "so great" there must be a very great or large number of faithful witnesses asleep in Christ. In fact, it must be even larger than the list that he gives in chapter eleven of Hebrews. Notice the many unnamed faithful in Heb.11:32-40.

"of witnesses." "MARTUS ... hence, literally one who remembers, that is one who has information or knowledge of a thing, and can therefore give information concerning, bring to light or confirm anything... And afterwards was applied to one who bore witness to the truth by his death, for such is the English word martyr." Bullinger. Page 893. This word occurs in the following New Testament passages:

Luke 24:48. "witnesses." Jesus to the apostles and other disciples after Jesus' resurrection.

1 Thess. 2:10."witnesses." Paul to the Thessalonians indicating that they and the Deity were witnesses to Paul's behavior (and those with him).

1 Tim. 6:12.* "witnesses." Paul states that Timothy had "professed a good profession before many witnesses."

2 Tim. 2:2. "witnesses." Paul tells Timothy to teach those things that he had heard from him "among many witnesses unto others.

Rev.1:5. "witness." This is applied to Jesus Christ and of course is true of all those in him.

Rev. 2:13. "martyr." This is true of all those who are faithful unto death.

Rev. 3:14. "witness." This is applied to Jesus Christ and of course is true of all those in him.

Rev.17:6. "martyr." This is true of all those who are faithful unto death.

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Thus Paul is exhorting and encouraging the Hebrew brethren, and all down through the ages who would read this epistle, with the thought that figuratively we have lying all around the examples of these faithful worthies of old who have been successful during their lives in running the race. He is pointing at the lives of those mentioned in Hebrews chapter eleven as has already been indicated and saying, "look they endured all sorts of trials, persecutions, afflictions and tribulations successfully so that they might obtain the victory and therefore so can you." Of course in this twelfth chapter of Hebrews he is going to introduce the greatest example of all times, namely, the Lord Jesus Christ. In fact, this whole epistle has been showing how Jesus is "better" than all.

It seems quite clear that Paul is drawing upon the Greek games, as the basis of his imagery. In the Greek games, victors of previous games were given the foremost seats at the future games. Likewise, one can imagine a large stadium with tier upon tier rising above the race track filled with all these faithful worthies of old thus reminding one of a cloud, who are being held forth as examples of those who have been successful in the very same thing the Hebrew brethren were involved in, namely, the race for the crown or the stephanos of life. One can also imagine statues with inscriptions identifying the victor represented by it setting around the grounds where the stadium is located. Of course, these statues would, in our analogy, represent those who had been victorious in the race for life eternal in the past. Thus the Hebrew brethren and we, as well, are being directed to study and meditate upon the word of the Deity where the accounts of both the victors and the losers are recorded for our learning and admonition. In this manner, we can see what enabled them to succeed where others failed and to avoid repeating the same mistakes that they had made. In this matter, we can obtain guidance, encouragement, stimulation, motivation, and help to persevere when the going gets rough.

At this point, the apostle Paul starts to consider what is actually involved in the contest itself as far as the contestants are concerned. Let us examine carefully exactly what he says about the contest and contestants.

"lay aside," "APOTITHEMI, to put away, to lay off; to put by for one's self, stow away." Bullinger page 70. " ... put away from oneself, lay aside ... cut it off" Liddell and Scott page 203. It only occurs in the following passages:

Acts 7:58 "laid down" The clothes of those who stoned Stephen and which were placed at the feet of Paul.

Rom.13:12 "cast off" Paul exhorts the brethren in Rome to remove "the works of darkness" and "put on the armor of light."

Eph.4:22 "put away" Paul exhorts the Ephesian brethren to put off the former conduct of the old man.

Eph.4:25 "putting away" Paul exhorts the Ephesian brethren to put away lying.

Col.3:8 "Put off" Paul exhorts the brethren in Colosse to put off "anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy communication out of your mouth."

Heb.12:1 "lay aside" Paul exhorts the Hebrew brethren to lay aside every weight, and the sin which doth so easily beset us."

James 1:12 "lay apart" James exhorts the twelve tribes scattered abroad to put away "all filthiness and superfluity of naughtiness."

1 Pet. 2:1 "lay aside" Peter exhorts "the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithyniall to put away "all malice, and all guile, and hypocrisies, and all evil speakings,..."

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"OGKOS, a prominence, protuberance, swelling; hence ineumberance,..." Bullinger page 863. " ... weight, burden, impediment ... " Arndt, Gingrich page 555. " ... bulk, size, mass of a body...2. bulk, mass, body ... mass or roll of something soft ... bodies, material substance ... II. metaphorically, bulk, weight, trouble .... 2. weight, dignity, pride, and in bad sense, self-importance, pretension...3. of style, loftiness, majesty ... in a bad sense bombast ... " Liddell and Scott page 1197. The word only occurs here in Hebrews 12:1 in the New Testament.

"and" "KAI, the conjunction of annexation, uniting things strictly co-ordinate, and, also, even, (KAI connects thoughts ... " Bullinger page 50. Thus the idea represented by "lay aside every weight" goes hand in hand with that represented by "lay aside ... the sin which doth so easily beset us." Both admonitions must be followed in order to be successful in the race for the coronal wreath of life. "Sin" "HAMARTIA, miss, failure, aberration from prescribed law or duty; hence, sin, considered not as an action, but as the quality of action, the evil principle ... that is sin generically, all forms, phases, and movements of sin, whether entertained in thought or consummated in act. In the denotes the generic idea of sin,or a single sinful action. With the article, it refers to the entire contents, not merely the representation of the idea. Sin is not merely, however, the quality of an action, but a principle manifesting itself in the activity of the subject ... " Bullinger page 703. It occurs in the following passages:

Rom. 6:1, 2, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 18, 20, 22, 23. Sin-nature.

Col. 2:11. Sin-nature.

Heb.1:3; 3:13; 7:27; 9:26, 28; 10:12, 26; 11:25; 12:1, 4. Sin-nature.

James 1:15. The actual disobedience.

1 Pet. 2:22, 24; 3:18; 4:1,8. Personal sin or the carnal mind.

2 Pet.1:9. Personal transgression.

1 John 1:7; 2:2. The carnal mind, or personal transgression.

1 John 3:4,5,8,9; 4:10. Personal transgression.

1 John 5:17. Personal transgression.

Rev. 1:5. Personal transgression.